Medicinal Cannabis: Report (html)


2012 Symposium: ‘Practical, Legal, and Ethical Perspectives on Medical Marijuana (Transcription of Speakers’ Remarks)’ (2012) 16 Michigan State University Journal of Medicine and Law 505

Abrams, D I et al, ‘Vaporization as a Smokeless Cannabis Delivery System: A Pilot Study’ (2007) 82 Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 572

ACON and others, Submission to NSW Legislative Council Inquiry into the Use of Cannabis for Medical Purposes (February 2013)

Allsop, David et al, Submission No 52 to the Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee, Parliament of Australia, Inquiry into the Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 (March 2015)

American Academy of Neurology, ‘Epidiolex (Cannabidiol) in Treatment Resistant Epilepsy’, Abstract of presentation to the American Academy of Neurology 67th Annual Meeting,

22 April 2015

American Glaucoma Society, Position Statement on Marijuana and the Treatment of Glaucoma, 10 August 2009 <>

American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed, 2013)

Arizona Department of Health Services, Arizona Medical Marijuana Act (AMMA) End of Year Report (2014) <>

Armentano, Paul, ‘Cannabis and Psychomotor Performance: A Rational Review of the Evidence and Implications for Public Policy’ (2012) 5 Drug Testing and Analysis 52

Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists Faculty of Pain Medicine, Statement on Patients’ Rights to Pain Management and Associated Responsibilities (Position Statement No 45, 2010) <>

Australian Health Ministers’ Advisory Council, Scheduling Policy Framework for Medicines and Chemicals (2015)

Australian Lawyers Alliance, Submission No 55 to the Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee, Parliament of Australia, Inquiry into the Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 (March 2015)

Bachhuber, Marcus A et al, ‘Medical Cannabis Laws and Opioid Analgesic Overdose Mortality in the United States, 1999–2010’ (2014) 174 JAMA Internal Medicine 1668

Backes, Michael, Cannabis Pharmacy (Black Dog & Leventhal, 2014)

Baron, E P, ‘Comprehensive Review of Medicinal Marijuana, Cannabinoids and Therapeutic Implications in Medicine and Headache: What a Strange Trip It’s Been…’ (June 2015) 55 Headache 885

Bedrocan BV, Submission No 48 to the Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee, Parliament of Australia, Inquiry into the Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 (March 2015)

Belendiuk, Katherine A, Lisa L Baldini and Marcel O Bonn-Miller, ‘Narrative Review of the Safety and Efficacy of Marijuana for the Treatment of Commonly State-Approved Medical and Psychiatric Disorders’ (2015) 10(10) Addiction Science & Clinical Practice

Bewley-Taylor, David, International Drug Control: Consensus Fractured (Cambridge University Press, 2012)

Blake, D R, ‘Preliminary Assessment of the Efficacy, Tolerability and Safety of a Cannabis-Based Medicine (Sativex) in the Treatment of Pain Caused by Rheumatoid Arthritis’ (2006) 45 Rheumatology 50

Bloor, Roger et al ‘Ammonia Release from Heated “Street” Cannabis Leaf and Its Potential Toxic Effects on Cannabis Users’ (2008) 103 Addiction 1671

Bonn-Miller, M O et al, ‘Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity Predicts Marijuana Use Coping Motives Among Traumatic Event-Exposed Marijuana Users’ (2007) 20 Journal of Traumatic Stress 577

Bostwick, Michael J, ‘Blurred Boundaries: The Therapeutics and Politics of Medical Marijuana’ (2012) 87 Mayo Clinic Proceedings 172

Brenner, Michelle, Conversations on Compassion (Create Space, 2015)

Burns, Patricia B, Rod J Rohrich and Kevin C Chung, ‘The Levels of Evidence and Their Role in Evidence-Based Medicine’ (2011) 128 Plastic Reconstructive Surgery 305

Canada Border Services Agency, Importation and Exportation of Controlled Substances and Precursors (2014)

Canadian Medical Association, CMA Statement Authorizing Marijuana for Medical Purposes (Update 2015) (2015)

Canadian Medical Protective Association, Medical Marijuana: New Regulations, New College Guidance for Canadian Doctors, (Document number W14-005-E, May 2014, revised July 2015) <>

Cancer Council Australia and Clinical Oncology Society of Australia

-— Submission No 37 to the Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee, Parliament of Australia, Inquiry into the Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014

— Position Statement—Medical Use of Cannabis, 21 May 2015 <>

Cancer Research UK, A Trial Looking at Sativex with Temozolomide for Glioblastoma Multiforme Brain Tumour (GWCA1208), 29 May 2015 <>

Caplan, Gerald, ‘Medical Marijuana: A Study of Unintended Consequences’ (2012) 43 McGeorge Law Review 127

Carter, G T et al, ‘Cannabis and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Hypothetical and Practical Applications, and a Call for Clinical Trials’ (2010) 27 American Journal of Hospice and Palliative

Carter, Gregory T and Bill S Rosen, ‘Marijuana in the Management of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis’ (2001) 18 American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care 264

Castle, David, Robin M Murray and Deepak Cyril D’Souza (eds), Marijuana and Madness,

(2nd ed, Cambridge University Press, 2012)

Caulkins, Jonathan et al, Considering Marijuana Legalisation: Insights for Vermont and Other Jurisdictions (RAND Corporation, 2015)

Caulkins, Jonathan P et al, Marijuana Legislation: What Everyone Needs to Know (Oxford University Press, 2012)

Chu, Yu-Wei, ‘The Effects of Medical Marijuana Laws on Illegal Marijuana Use’ (2014) 38 Journal of Health Economics 43

ClinicalTrials.Gov, A Study: Pure CBD as a Single-Agent for Solid Tumor (NCT02255292),

1 October 2014, <>

Collège des Médecins du Québec, Guidelines Concerning the Prescription of Dried Cannabis for Medical Purposes (April 2014)

College of Family Physicians of Canada

— Authorizing Dried Cannabis for Chronic Pain or Anxiety: Preliminary Guidance

(September 2014)

— Statement on Health Canada’s Proposed Changes to Medical Marijuana Regulations

(Position Statement, February 2013)

College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia, Professional Standards and Guidelines: Marijuana for Medical Purposes (5 May 2015)

Collett, Stephen C, Tom Gariffo, Marisa Hernandez-Morgan, Evaluation of the Medical Marijuana Program in Washington, DC, University of California, Los Angeles Luskin School of Public Affairs (2013)

Collier, Joe, ‘Paediatric Prescribing: Using Unlicensed Drugs and Medicines Outside Their Licensed Indications’ (1999) 48 British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 5

Colorado Department of Public Health & Environment, Medical Marijuana Registry Program Statistics, 30 June 3015 <>

Commonwealth Department of Health

— Medicinal Cannabis (27 May 2015) <>

— Submission No 67 to the Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee, Inquiry into Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014

— The National Strategy for Quality Use of Medicines: Executive Summary (2002)

Commonwealth Department of Health—Therapeutic Goods Administration

— About the Work of the TGA—A Risk Management Approach (15 August 2011)

— Access to Unapproved Therapeutic Goods via the Special Access Scheme (2009)

— Access to Unapproved Therapeutic Goods: Personal Importation (2004)

— Australian Public Assessment Report for Nabiximols (27 September 2013)

— Australian Regulatory Guidelines for Complementary Medicines (version 5.2, May 2015)

— Australian Requirements and Recommendations for Pharmacovigilance Responsibilities of Sponsors of Medicines (4 June 2014)

— Authorised Prescribers (14 July 2015)

— Benefits Versus Risks Approach to Regulating Therapeutic Goods (8 February 2015)

— Good Manufacturing Practice (29 April 2013)

— Mandatory Requirements for an Effective Application (2015)

— Manufacturer Inspections—An Overview (1 May 2013)

— Reporting Medicine and Vaccine Adverse Events (28 October 2014)

— Medicines and Vaccines Post-Market Vigilance—Statistics for 2014 (26 May 2015)

— Medicines Regulation and the TGA (1999)

— Role of the Sponsor (28 March 2013)

— TGA Labelling and Packaging Regulatory Framework (28 October 2014)

— The Therapeutic Goods Administration’s Risk Management Approach to the Regulation of Therapeutic Goods (2011) 6

Commonwealth Department of Health—Therapeutic Goods Administration (Advisory Committee on Medicines Scheduling), Final Decisions and Reasons for Decisions by Delegates of the Secretary to the Department of Health, March 2015 (19 March 2015)

Commonwealth Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Australian Government, Fact Sheet: Answers to Your Questions from the Information Sessions (May 2015)

Cougle, J R et al, ‘Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Cannabis Use in a Nationally Representative Sample’ (2011) 25 Psychologically Addictive Behaviors 554

Council of Australian Therapeutics Advisory Groups, Rethinking Medicines Decision-Making in Public Hospitals: Guiding Principles for the Quality Use of Off-Label Medicines (November 2013)

Cridge, Belinda J and Rhonda J Rosengren, ‘Critical Appraisal of the Potential Use of Cannabinoids in Cancer Management’ (2013) 5 Cancer Management and Research 301

Curtis, Adrienne, Carl E Clarke and Hugh E Rickards, ‘Cannabinoids for Tourette’s Syndrome’ (2009) 4 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Decorte, Tom, ‘Cannabis Social Clubs in Belgium: Organisational Strengths and Weaknesses, and Threats to the Model’ (2014) 26 International Journal of Drug Policy 122

Decorte, Tom et al (eds) World Wide Weed: Global Trends in Cannabis Cultivation and Its Control (Ashgate, 2011)

Deepak Cyril D’Souza and Mohini Ranganathan, ‘Medical Marijuana: Is the Cart Before the Horse?’ (2015) 313 Journal of the American Medical Association 2431

Degenhardt, Louisa and Wayne D Hall, ‘The Adverse Effects of Cannabinoids: Implications for

Use of Medical Marijuana’ (2008) 178(13) Canadian Medical Association Journal 1685

Delourme, J et al, ‘Respiratory Consequences of Inhalation of Adulterated Cannabis’ (2009) 26

La Revue des Maladies Respiratoires 552 (French)

Delsys Research Group, Final Report: Cost-Benefit Analysis of Regulatory Changes for Access to Marihuana for Medical Purposes (2012)

Dhanapal, Raghu, T R Saraswathi and Rajkumar N Govind, ‘Cancer Cachexia’ (2011) 15 Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology 257

Downey, L A et al, ‘The Effects of Cannabis and Alcohol in Simulated Driving: Influences of Dose and Experience’ (2013) 50 Accident Analysis and Prevention 879

Drummer, Olaf et al, ‘The Involvement of Drugs in Drivers of Motor Vehicles Killed in Australian Road Traffic Crashes’ (2003) 943 Accident Analysis and Prevention 1

Dyer, Owen, ‘The Growth of Medical Marijuana’ (2013) British Medical Journal 347:f4755

Enterprise One Pain Management Service, Patient Outcomes in Pain Management

(31 December 2014)

Epilepsy Australia, Medical Marijuana in the Treatment of Epilepsy (30 October 2014)

European Medicines Agency

— Guideline on Good Agricultural and Collection Practice (GACP) for Starting Materials of Herbal Origin (EMEA/HMPC/246816/2005)

— Guideline on Stability Testing: Stability Testing of Existing Active Substances and Related Finished Products (CPMP/QWP/122/02, rev 1)

— Quality of Herbal Medicinal Products/Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products (CPMP/QWP/2819/00 Rev. 2)

— Test Procedures and Acceptance Criteria for Herbal Substances, Herbal Preparations and Herbal Medicinal Products/Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products (EMA/CPMP/QWP/2820/00 Rev 2)

Faculty of Pain Medicine, Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists, Statement on ‘Medicinal Cannabis’ with Particular Reference to its Use in the Management of Patients with Chronic Non-Cancer Pain (PM 10, 2015)

Families and Friends for Drug Law Reform, Submission No 82 to the ACT Standing Committee on Health, Ageing, Community and Social Services, Exposure Draft of the Drugs of Dependence (Cannabis Use for Medical Purposes) Amendment Bill 2014, 16 February 2015

Farrell, Michael, Rachelle Buchbinder and Wayne Hall, ‘Should Doctors Prescribe Cannabinoids?’ (2014) 348 British Medical Journal g2737

Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (Germany), Glossary: Cannabis, 2013

Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann et al, ‘The Dilemma of Medical Marijuana Use by Rheumatology Patients’ (2014) 66 Arthritis Care & Research 797

Flach, A J, ‘ Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in the Treatment of End-Stage Open-Angle Glaucoma’ (2002) 100 Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society 215

Forrester, Kim, Debra Griffiths, Essentials of Law for Medical Practitioners (2013)

Freckelton, Ian, ‘Medicinal Cannabis Law Reform: Lessons from Canadian Litigation’ (2015) 22 Journal of Law and Medicine 719

Frezza, Claire, ‘Medical Marijuana: A Drug Without a Medical Model’ (2013) 101 Georgetown Law Journal 1117

Galloway, Kevin T et al, ‘War on Pain: Multimodal and Multidisciplinary Therapy for Pain Management’ (2011) 6(9) American Nurse Today <>

General Purpose Standing Committee No 4, Legislative Council of the Parliament of New South Wales, The Use of Cannabis for Medical Purposes (May 2013)

Gloss, G and B Vickrey, ‘Cannabinoids for Epilepsy: Review’ (2014) 3 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Grant, I et al, ‘Non-Acute (Residual) Neurocognitive Effects of Cannabis Use: A Meta-Analytic Study’ (2003) 9 Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 679

Green, Keith, ‘Marijuana Smoking vs Cannabinoids for Glaucoma Therapy’ (1998) 116 Archives of Ophthalmology 1433

Gregorio, Joseph, ‘Physicians, Medical Marijuana and the Law’ (2014) 16 Virtual Mentor 732

Grotenhermen, Franjo and Ethan Russo (eds) Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential (Haworth Press, 2002)

GW Pharmaceuticals, Cancer Pain <>

Hakkarainen, Pekka et al, ‘Growing Medicine: Small-Scale Cannabis Cultivation for Medical Purposes in Six Different Countries’ (2015) 26 International Journal of Drug Policy 250

Hall, Wayne, ‘What has Research Over the Past Two Decades Revealed About the Adverse Health Effects of Recreational Cannabis Use?’ (2014) 110 Addiction 19

Hamadeh, R et al, ‘Fatal Aspergillosis Associated with Smoking Contaminated Marijuana, in a Marrow Transplant Recipient’ (1988) 94 Chest 432

Hartman, Rebecca and Marilyn Huestis, ‘Cannabis Effects on Driving Skills’ (2013) 59 Clinical Chemistry 478

Hasin, Debra S et al, ‘Medical Marijuana Laws and Adolescent Marijuana Use in the USA from 1991 to 2014: Results from Annual, Repeated Cross-sectional Surveys’ (2015) The Lancet Psychiatry <>

Hazekamp, A and J T Fischedick, ‘Cannabis—From Cultivar to Chemovar’ (2011) 4 Drug Testing and Analysis 660

Hazekamp, Arno, ‘An Evaluation of the Quality of Medicinal Grade Cannabis in the Netherlands’ (2006) 1 Cannabinoids 1

Health Canada

— Approval of Sativex with Conditions: Fact Sheet (13 April 2005)

— Authorization with Conditions of Sativex (1 August 2007)

— Import and Export of Marijuana by Licensed Producers—Information Bulletin, 8 June 2015

— Information for Health Care Professionals: Cannabis (Marihuana, Marijuana) and the Cannabinoids (February 2013)

— Medical Marihuana Regulatory Reform 2011 Consultations Results

— Proposed Improvements to Health Canada’s Marihuana Medical Access Program

(31 March 2013)

— Section 56 Class Exemption for Licensed Producers Under the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations to Conduct Activities with Cannabis (8 July 2015)

— Statement on Supreme Court of Canada Decision in R v Smith (7 July 2015)

Hillig, Karl W, ‘Genetic Evidence for Speciation in Cannabis (Cannabaceae)’ (2005) 52 Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 161

House of Commons Science and Technology Committee, United Kingdom Parliament, Evidence Check 2: Homeopathy (HC 45) Fourth Report of Session 2009–10 (2010)

IASP Task Force on Taxonomy, Classification of Chronic Pain (2nd ed, 1994)

International Narcotics Control Board

— Contribution to the High-Level Review of the Implementation by Member States of the Political Declaration and Plan of Action on International Cooperation Towards an Integrated and Balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug Problem (2014)

— Guide on Estimating Requirements for Substances under International Control (2012)

— Report of the International Narcotics Control Board for 2014 (E/INCB/2014/1)

John Ramsay & Associates, Review of the Tasmanian Poppy Industry Regulation: Report (July 2013)

Jung, Julia et al, ‘Studies on the Metabolism of the Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Precursor Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid A (Δ9-THCA-A) in Rat Using LC-MS/MS, LC-QTOF MS and GC-MS Techniques’ (2009) 44 Journal of Mass Spectrometry 1423

Kahan, Meldon et al, ‘Prescribing Smoked Cannabis for Chronic Noncancer Pain: Preliminary Recommendations’ (2014) 60 Canadian Family Physician 1083

Kalant, Harold and Amy J Porath-Waller, ‘Medical Use of Cannabis and Cannabinoids’ (2014) Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse Clearing the Smoke on Cannabis (Report Series No 5, 2014)

Kehl, L J, ‘A Cannabinoid Agonist Differentially Attenuates Deep Tissue Hyperalgesia in Animal Models of Cancer and Inflammatory Muscle Pain’ (2003) 103 Pain 175

Kondrad, Elin and Alfred Reid, ‘Colorado Family Physicians’ Attitudes Toward Medical Marijuana’ (2013) 26 Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 52

Koppel, B S et al, ‘Systematic Review: Efficacy and Safety of Medical Marijuana in Selected Neurological Disorders: Report of the Guideline Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology’ (2014) 82 Neurology 1556

Kramer, Joan, ‘Medical Marijuana for Cancer’ (2015) 65 CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 109

Lal, S et al, ‘Cannabis Use Among Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease’ (2011) 23 European Journal of Gastroenterological & Hepatology 891

Legislative Council General Purpose Standing Committee No 4, Parliament of New South Wales, The Use of Cannabis for Medical Purposes (2013)

Legislative Council Government Administration Committee ‘A’, Parliament of Tasmania, Interim Report on Legalised Medicinal Cannabis (2014)

Lenné, M G et al, ‘The Effects of Cannabis and Alcohol on Simulated Arterial Driving: Influences

of Driving Experience and Task Demand’ (2010) 42 Accident Analysis and Prevention 859

Lenné, Michael, Tom Triggs and Michael Regan, Cannabis and Road Safety: A Review of Recent Epidemiological Driver Impairment, and Drug Screening Literature’ Report No 23, Monash University Accident Research Centre (2004)

Linger, P, A Ostwald and J Haensler, ‘Cannabis Sativa L. Growing on Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil: Growth, Cadmium Uptake and Photosynthesis’ (2005) 49 Biologia Plantarum 567

Liu, Wai, ‘Why Anti-Cancer Properties in Cannabis Must be Investigated’, The Conversation UK,

26 June 2015

Loflin, Mallory and Mitch Earleywine, ‘No Smoke, No Fire: What the Initial Literature Suggests Regarding Vapourized Cannabis and Respiratory Risk’ (2015) 51 Canadian Journal of Respiratory Therapeutics 7

Lucas, Philippe, ‘It Can’t Hurt to Ask; A Patient-Centred Quality of Service Assessment of Health Canada’s Medical Cannabis Policy and Program’, (2012) 9 Harm Reduction Journal 2

Lynch, Mary E and Fiona Campbell, ‘Cannabinoids for Treatment of Chronic Non-Cancer Pain;

A Systematic Review of Randomised Trials’ (2011) 72 British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 735

Mack, Alison and Janet Joy, Marijuana as Medicine? The Science Beyond the Controversy

(National Academy Press, 2001)

Maisto, Stephen, Mark Galizio and Gerard Connors, Drug Use and Abuse (Cengage Learning, 2014)

Marcoux, Rita, E Paul Larrat and F Randy Vogenberg, ‘Medical Marijuana and Related Legal Aspects’ (2013) 38 Pharmacy and Therapeutics 615

Marks, Amber, The Legal Landscape for Cannabis Social Clubs in Spain (Observatorio Civil De Drogas, 2015)

Martin-Sanchez, E et al, ‘Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cannabis Treatment for

Chronic Pain’ (2009) 10 Pain Medicine 1353

Mather, Laurence, Submission No 17 to the Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee, Parliament of Australia, Inquiry into the Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 (2015)

Mather, Laurence, Alex Wodak and William Notcutt, ‘Re: Should Doctors Prescribe Cannabinoids?’ <>

Mather, Laurence E et al, ‘(Re)introducing Medicinal Cannabis’ (2013) 199 Medical Journal of Australia 759

Mathern, Gary W, Laurie Beninig and Astrid Nehlig, ‘Fewer Specialists Support Using Medical Marijuana and CBS in Treating Epilepsy Patients Compared with Other Medical Professionals and Patients: Results of Epilepsia’s Survey’ (2014) 56 Epilepsia 1

McLaren, Jennifer et al, ‘Cannabis Potency and Contamination: A Review of the Literature’ (2008) 103 Addiction 1100

McLoughlin, B C et al, ‘Cannabis and Schizophrenia’ (2015) 41 Schizophrenia Bulletin 336

McLoughlin, B C et al, ‘Cannabis and Schizophrenia: Review’ (2014) 10 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

McPartland, J M and P L Pruitt, ‘Medical Marijuana and Its Use by the Immunocompromised’ (1997) 3 Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 39

Medical Board of Australia, Good Medical Practice: A Code of Conduct for Doctors in Australia (March 2014)

Menetrey, A, M Augsburger, B Favrat et al, ‘Assessment of Driving Capability Through the Use of Clinical and Psychomotor Tests in Relation to Blood Cannabinoids Levels Following Oral Administration of 20 mg Dronabinol or of a Cannabis Decoction Made with 20 or 60 mg Delta9-THC’ (2005) 29 Journal of Analytical Toxicology 327

Moldzio, R et al, ‘ Effects of Cannabinoids Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid and Cannabidiol in MPP+ Affected Murine Mesencephalic Cultures’ (2012) 19 Phytomedicine 819

Munson, A E et al, ‘Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids’ (1975) 55 Journal of the National Cancer Institute 597

Naftali, T et al, ‘Cannabis Induces a Clinical Response in Patients with Crohn’s Disease: A Prospective Placebo-Controlled Study’ (2013) 11 Clinical Gastroenterological & Hepatology 1276

Naftali, T et al, ‘Treatment of Crohn’s Disease with Cannabis: An Observational Study’ (2011) 13 Israel Medical Association Journal 455

National Cancer Institute, Cannabis and Cannabinoids, 6 November 2014 <>

National Cannabis Prevention and Information Centre

— Cannabis Withdrawal (1 November 2011)

— Driving Under the Influence of Cannabis: A Brief Review of the Literature (2013)

National Health and Medical Research Council, National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research (2007)

Netherlands Minister for Health, Welfare and Sport, Guidelines for Cultivating Cannabis for Medicinal Purposes [Voorschriften voor de Verbouw van Cannabis voor Medicinale Doeleinden], Annex to the Regulation of the Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport of 9 January 2003, GMT/BMC 2340685, English translation reproduced in (2003) 3 Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics 51

New South Wales Health, Role of Drug and Therapeutics Committee in the Evaluation and Approval of Medicines for Use in Public Hospitals (Policy Directive No PD2008_037)

New South Wales Working Party on the Use of Cannabis for Medical Purposes, Report of the Working Party on the Use of Cannabis for Medical Purposes (2000)

Nikles, Jane et al, ‘Stakeholders’ Views on the Routine Use of N-of-1 Trials to Improve Clinical Care and to Make Resource Allocation Decisions for Drug Use’ (2010) 34 Australian Health Review 131

Nolan, Jim, ‘Employee Privacy in the Electronic Workplace Pt 2: Drug Testing, Out of Hours Conduct and References’ (2000) 7 Privacy Law & Policy Reporter 139

Nurmikko, Turo J et al, ‘Sativex Successfully Treats Neuropathic Pain Characterised by Allodynia:

A Randomised, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial’ (2007) 133 Pain 210

Nurnberg, Helen et al, ‘An Analysis of Applicants Presenting to a Medical Marijuana Specialty Practice in California’ (2011) 4 Journal of Drug Policy Analysis 1

O’Connell, Cheri, Submission No 109 to the Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee, Parliament of Australia, Inquiry into the Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014

Patel, Anup, ‘Medical Marijuana in Pediatric Neurological Disorders’ (2015) Journal of Child Neurology (advance) <>

Penington, David, ‘Medicinal Cannabis: Time for Clear Thinking’ (2015) 202 Medical Journal of Australia 74

Pertwee, Roger (ed) Handbook of Cannabis (Oxford University Press, 2014)

Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee, Public Summary Document: Nabiximols (July 2013)

Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme, Nabiximols, Oral Spray, 10 mL, Sativex, July 2013

Pharmacy Board of Australia

— Background on the Regulation of Compounding by Pharmacists (March 2015)

— Guidelines on Compounding of Medicines (April 2015)

Phillips, Jennan A, Michael G Holland, Debra D Baldwin, ‘Marijuana in the Workplace: Guidance for Occupational Health Professionals and Employers. Joint Guidance Statement of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses and the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine’ (2015) 57 Journal of Environmental Medicine 459

Phillips, Tudor J C et al, ‘Pharmacological Treatment of Painful HIV-Associated Sensory Neuropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials’ (2010) 5(12) PLOS ONE e14433

Pharmaceutical Inspection Convention: Pharmaceutical Inspection Co-Operation Scheme, Guide to Good Manufacturing Practice for Medicinal Products (PE 009-8, 15 January 2009)

Porcella, Anna et al, ‘The Human Eye Expresses High Levels of CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor mRNA and Protein’ (2001) 12 European Journal of Neuroscience 1123

Potter, C M et al, ‘Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Cannabis Use in a Nationally Representative Sample’ (2011) 25 Journal of Anxiety Disorders 437

Public Health Association of Australia, Position Statement: Medicinal Cannabis in Australia

Raman, C et al, ‘Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Delayed Disease Progression in Mice by Treatment with a Cannabinoid’ (2004) 5 ALS and Other Motor Neuron Disorders 33

Rasheed, Arun, Sravya Reddy B and Roja C, ‘A Review on Standardisation of Herbal Formulation’ (2012) 2 International Journal of Phytotherapy 74

Review of Medicines and Medical Devices Regulation, Regulation of Complementary Medicines—Addendum to Discussion Paper (February 2015)

Rock, E M et al, ‘Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid Reduces Nausea-Induced Conditioned Gaping in

Rats and Vomiting in Suncus Murinus’ (2013) 170 British Journal of Pharmacology 641

Rom, Slava and Yuri Persidsky, ‘Cannabinoid Receptor 2: Potential Role in Immunomodulation and Neuroinflammation’ (2013) 8 Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 608

Romano, Luigi and Arno Hazekamp, ‘Cannabis Oil: Chemical Evaluation of an Upcoming

Cannabis-Based Medicine’ (2013) 7 Cannabinoids 1

Russo, Ethan

— ‘Taming THC: Potential Cannabis Synergy and Phytocannabinoid-Terpenoid Entourage Effects’ (2011) 163 British Journal of Pharmacology 1344

The Solution to ‘the Medicinal Cannabis Problem’ in Michael Schatman, Ethical Issues in Chronic Pain Management (Informa, 2007)

Sackett, David L et al, ‘Evidence-Based Medicine: What It Is and What It Isn’t’ (1996) 312 British Medical Journal 71

Sansom, Lloyd, Will Delaat and John Horvath, Review of Medicines and Medical Devices Regulation (2015)

Scollo, M M and M H Winstanley (eds), Tobacco in Australia: Facts & Issues (4th ed, 2012, Cancer Council Victoria)

Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Committee, Parliament of Australia, Inquiry into the Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 (2015)

Seppala, Emma, ‘The Compassionate Mind’ (2013) 26 Association for Psychological Science Observer <>

Sewell, Andrew R, James Poling and Mehmet Soluoglu, ‘The Effect of Cannabis Compared with Alcohol on Driving’ (2009) 18 American Journal of Addiction 185

Standing Committee on Health, Aging, Community and Social Services, ACT Legislative Assembly, Inquiry into Exposure Draft of the Drugs of Dependence (Cannabis Use for Medical Purposes) Amendment Bill 2014 and Related Discussion Paper (March 2015)

Tomida, I et al, ‘Effect of Sublingual Application of Cannabinoids on Intraocular Pressure: A Pilot Study’ (2006) 15 Journal of Glaucoma 349

Tomida, I, R G Pertwee and A Azuara-Blanco, ‘Cannabinoids and Glaucoma’ (2004) 88 British Journal of Ophthalmology 708

Tramèr, Martin R et al, ‘Cannabinoids for Control of Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting: Quantitative Systematic Review’ (2001) 323 British Medical Journal 16

Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini et al, ‘Herbal and Plant Therapy in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease’ (2015) 28 Annals of Gastroenterology 210

Vandrey, Ryan et al, ‘Cannabinoid Dose and Label Accuracy in Edible Medical Cannabis Products’ (2015) 313 Journal of the American Medical Association 2491

Verhoeckx, Kitty C M et al, ‘Unheated Cannabis Sativa Extracts and Its Major Compound THC-acid Have Potential Immuno-Modulating Properties Not Mediated by CB1 and CB2 Receptor Coupled Pathways’ (2006) 6 International Immunopharmacology 656

Victorian Department of Health, Policy for Maintenance Pharmacotherapy for Opioid Dependence (2013)

Victorian Law Reform Commission, Medicinal Cannabis: Issues Paper (2015)

Victorian Public Sector Commission, Legal Form and Governance Arrangements for Public Entities: Guidelines (May 2013)

Wachtel, Boaz, International Medical Cannabis Policy (11 March 2013) <>

Wade, Derick T, ’A Preliminary Controlled Study to Determine Whether Whole-Plant Cannabis Extracts Can Improve Intractable Neurogenic Symptoms’ (2003) 17 Clinical Rehabilitation 21

Wang, Tongtong et al, ‘Adverse Effects of Medical Cannabinoids: A Systematic Review’ (2008) 178 Canadian Medical Association Journal 1669

Ware, Mark A et al, ‘Smoked Cannabis for Chronic Neuropathic Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial’ (2010) 182 Canadian Medical Association Journal E694

Ware, Mark and Vivianne Tawfik, ‘Safety Issues Concerning the Medical Use of Cannabis and Cannabinoids’ (2005) 10 Pain Research and Management 31

Warr, David, ‘Chemotherapy- and Cancer-Related Nausea and Vomiting’ (2008) 15 Current Oncology S1

Warrell, David, Timothy M. Cox, John D Firth (eds), Oxford Textbook of Medicine (Oxford University Press, 2003)

Watanabe, Kazuhito et al, ‘Marijuana Extracts Possess the Effects Like the Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals’ (2005) 206 Toxicology 471

Welty, Timothy E, Adrienne Luebke and Barry E Gidal, ‘Cannabidiol: Promise and Pitfalls’ (2014)

14 Epilepsy Currents 250

Western Australian Department of Health and Victorian Department of Health, Application to Amend the Poisons Standard (Substance: Cannabidiol), 6 October 2014

Whiting, Penny F et al, ‘Cannabinoids for Medical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis’ (2015) 313 Journal of the American Medical Association 2456

Wilsey, Barth et al, ‘Low-Dose Vaporized Cannabis Significantly Improves Neuropathic Pain’ (2012) 14 Journal of Pain 136

World Health Organisation

— Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances: Guideline for Availability and Accessibility of Controlled Medicines (2011)

— WHO Guidelines on Good Agricultural and Collection Practices (GACP) for Medicinal Plants (2003)

Yarnell, Stephanie, ‘Marijuana for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of the Current Literature’ (2015) 17(3) Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders <>

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